Rare Pre Colombian Ichma ??? (Chancay/Chimu ) like pottery Container Curiosity #8, from Peru, 1100-1440 AD, #951
Pre Colmbian Ichma??? (Chancay/Chimu)
Pottery Container, Curiosity #8
951. Description: Rare Pre Colombian Ichma?? (Chancay/Chimu) Like pottery container Curiosity #8 Peru, 1100-1440 AD?
Dimensions: 16.5” x 10.5”
Condition: Very good for its age. Some erosion on the lip, and to the pigment.
Provenance: Collection of C. Nielson, MD, passed down from her grandfather.
The piece has the characteristics of both Chancay and Chimu cultures. A local Peruvian archaeologist believes that this came as a result of trade between the Ichma- Curiosity #7 and both the Chancay and Chimu cultures. I continue researching the piece to try and pin down an exact culture that might have made this.
Some information on the Ichma follows:
The Ichma or Yschma culture was a pre-Incan indigenous culture, located south of Lima, Peru in the Lurin valley; it later spread north into the Rimac valley. The Ichma culture was formed around 1100 AD following the breakup of the Wari Empire. It lasted until around 1440 when they were absorbed into the Incan Empire.
Huaca San Borja Archaeological site: With the breakup of the Wari Empire, several small kingdoms and confederations were created. Over time, two cultures came to dominate the region, the Chancay culture to the north of Lima, and the Ichma culture to the south.
The Ichma people were an Aymara-speaking people that came to inhabit the coastal areas near Lima following the collapse of the Wari empire.
The Ichma people inhabited Pachacamac and continued the growth and influence of the city. The Ichma people constructed at least 16 pyramids in Pachacamac, and built or remodeled more structures in the Lima area. Among these are the Huaca Huantille in the Magdalena del Mar district, the Huaca Mateo Salado in Lima's district of Pueblo Libre, the Huaca San Borja in the San Borja District, and the Huaca San Miguel, in the ancient city of Maranga in the San Miguel District. Additionally, archaeological sites in Puruchuco and Cajamarquilla have been ascribed to the Ichma people.
Archaeology: A number of cultural and human remains have been discovered in various Ichma sites. In the Huaca Huantille, at least 9 mummies have been discovered, buried with ceramic items and jewelry crafted from copper, silver, and gold.] In 2012, excavation in the Pachacamac site yielded a burial chamber with more than 80 mummified remains, and a dozen infant remains. Along with the skeletons, this site also contained various artifacts, including ceramic wares, jewelry, and animal remains.
Collapse of the Ichma: When the Inca Empire expanded into this region, the cultures of the Ichma and the Chancay people, along with smaller cultures, were absorbed into the Inca Empire. (Source Wikipedia).
Some information on the Chancay/Chimu:
Not much is known about the Chancay civilization which developed in the later part of the Inca empire. This culture emerged after the fall of the Wari civilization. Parts of the southern Chancay area were conquered by the Chimú in the early fifteenth century and in about 1450 A.D. the Incas were occupying both areas. It is believed that the Chancay had a centralized political structure, forming a small regional state. Thus the Chancay culture declined in the fifteenth century to make way for the territorial expansion of the Inca Empire.
Occupying the central coast coastal region of Peru, the Chancay were centered mostly in the Chancay and Chillón valleys, although they also occupied other areas such as the Rimac and Lurin valley areas. The center of the Chancay culture was located 80 kilometers north of Lima. It is a desert region but has fertile valleys bathed by rivers and is rich in resources that allowed for, among other things, extensive agricultural development.
The Chancay developed intense trade relations with other regions, allowing them to interract with other cultures and settlements in a wide area.
The Chancay culture based its economy on agriculture, fishing and trade. Water reservoirs and irrigation canals were built by engineers in order to develop agriculture. As the culture was geographically located on the oceanfront, they were involved in traditional fishing both from the shore as well as further out to sea from their caballitos de totora, an ancient type of watercraft unique to Peru. The Chancay also traded with other regions either by land towards the Peruvian highlands and jungle or by sea to the north and south of their borders.
The settlements in Lauri, Lumbra, Tambo Blanco, Handrail, Pisquillo Chico and Tronconal focused mainly on artisans producing large-scale ceramics and textiles. The Chancay culture is the first of the Peruvian cultures that had mass production of ceramics, textiles and metals such as gold and silver which were ritualistic and domestic goods. They were also noted for their wood carved items.
The curacas, political leaders, regulated the production of artisans, farmers and ranchers as well as oversaw festive activities. (Source: Wikipedia)
The Chimú culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru. The culture arose about 900. The Inca emperor Topa Inca Yupanqui led a campaign which conquered the Chimú around 1470.
This was just fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region. Consequently, Spanish chroniclers were able to record accounts of Chimú culture from individuals who had lived before the Inca conquest. Similarly, archaeological evidence suggest Chimor grew out of the remnants of the Moche culture; early Chimú pottery had some resemblance to that of the Moche. Their ceramics are all black, and their work in precious metals is very detailed and intricate.
The Chimú resided on the north coast of Peru: "It consists of a narrow strip of desert, 20 to 100 miles wide, between the Pacific and the western slopes of the Andes, crossed here and there by short rivers which start in the rainier mountains and provide a series of green and fertile oases." The valley plains are very flat and well-suited to irrigation, which is probably as old as agriculture here. Fishing was also very important and was almost considered as important as agriculture.
The Chimú were known to have worshipped the moon and it is believed they considered it more powerful than the sun, which was preferred by the Inca Empire. Offerings played an important role in religious rites. A common object for offerings, as well as one used by artisans, was the shell of the Spondylus shellfish, which live only in the warm coastal waters off present-day Ecuador. It was associated with the sea, rainfall, and fertility. Spondylus shells were also highly valued and traded by the Chimú people.
The Chimú are best known for their distinctive monochromatic pottery and fine metal working of copper, gold, silver, bronze, and tumbaga (copper and gold). The pottery is often in the shape of a creature, or has a human figure sitting or standing on a cuboid bottle. The shiny black finish of most Chimú pottery was achieved by firing the pottery at high temperatures in a closed kiln, which prevented oxygen from reacting with the clay.
The oldest civilization present on the north coast of Peru is the Moche or Mochica civilization, which is identified as Early Chimú. The start of this period is not known for certain, although it was before the Common Era, but it ended around 500 CE. It was centered in the Chicama, Moche, and Viru Valleys. "Many large pyramids are attributed to the Early Chimú period." These pyramids are built of adobe in rectangular shapes made from molds. "Early Chimú cemeteries are also found without pyramid associations. Burials are usually in extended positions, in prepared tombs. The rectangular, adobe-lined and covered tombs have niches in their walls in which bowls were placed."
The mature Chimú culture developed in roughly the same territory where the Mochica had existed centuries before. The Chimú was also a coastal culture. It was developed in the Moche Valley north of present-day Lima, northeast of Huarmey, and finishing in central present-day Trujillo. Later, it expanded to Arequipa.
The Chimú appeared in the year 900: Chimor, also known as the Kingdom of Chimor, had its capital "at the great site now called Chanchan, between Trujilo and the sea, and we may assume that Taycanamo founded his kingdom there. His son, Guacri-caur, conquered the lower part of the valley and was succeeded by a son named Nancen-pinco who really laid the foundations of the Kingdom by conquering the head of the valley of Chimor and the neighboring valleys of Sana, Pacasmayo, Chicama, Viru, Chao and Santa."
The estimated founding date of the last Chimú kingdom is in the first half of the 14th century. Nacen-pinco was believed to have ruled around 1370 and was followed by seven rulers whose names are not yet known. Minchancaman followed these rulers, and was ruling around the time of the Inca conquest (between 1462 and 1470). This great expansion is believed to have occurred during the late period of Chimú civilization, called: Late Chimú, but the development of the Chimú territory spanned a number of phases and more than a single generation. Nacen-pinco, "may have pushed the imperial frontiers to Jequetepeque and to Santa, but conquest of the entire region was an agglutinative process initiated by earlier rulers."
The Chimú expanded to include a vast area and many different ethnic groups. At its peak, the Chimú advanced to the limits of the desert coast to the valley of the Jequetepeque River in the north. Pampa Grande in the Lambayeque Valley was also ruled by the Chimú.
To the south, they expanded as far as Carabayallo. Their expansion southward was stopped by the military power of the great valley of Lima. Historians and archeologists contest how far south they managed to expand. (Source Wikipedia)