Native American Hopi Pottery : Nampeyo of Hano (Hopi 1860-1942) Attributed Canteen-Near Excellent #389
Hopi Pottery Canteen, by Nampeyo of Hano
389. Description: Native American Hopi Pottery Canteen by Nampeyo of Hano (Hopi, 1860-1942) Attributed Canteen diminutive form with Sikytki-style decorations on belly, length 4.5 in. x width 5 in. late 19th century . Condition: Near excellent.
Nampeyo of Hano, is the matriarch of Hopi Pueblo, and was the first pueblo woman to gain recognition for her pottery. She lived and worked at a time when putting one's name on the vessel was not done, so little, if any, of her pottery is signed. She spent a large part of her productive life supplying pottery to the Fred Harvey Company for re-sale, so documentation of her work is well established. Nampeyo had five children Fannie Polacca Nampeyo, Wesley Lesso, Nellie Nampeyo Douma, William Lesso, and Annie Healing Nampeyo.
Note: Nampeyo's birth date has been stated to be either 1857 or 1858 by noted photographer W. H. Jackson who photographed her in 1875 at the time he said she was 17 or 18 years of age. (Plateau, A Quarterly. October 1951, Volume 24, Number 2, page 92). (Source: Adoby Gallery)
Iris Nampeyo (ca. 1860-1942) was a Hopi - Tewa potter who lived on the Hopi Reservation in Arizona. She received the English name Iris as an infant, but was better known by her Tewa name, Num-pa-yu, meaning "snake that does not bite".
She used ancient techniques for making and firing pottery and used designs from "Old Hopi" pottery and sherds found at Sikytki ruins on the First Mesa of the Hano Pueblo, which dated to the 15th century.
Her work is in collections in the United States and Europe, including many museums like the National Museum of American Art, Museum of Northern Arizona and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University.
Early life: She was born on the First Mesa at the Hano Pueblo, which is primarily made up of descendants of the Tewa tribe from the Northern Rio Grande of New Mexico who fled west to Hopi lands about 1702 for protection from the "marauding" Ute people. Her mother, White Corn was Tewa; her father Quootsva, from nearby Walpi Pueblo, was a member of the Hopi Snake clan. According to tradition, Nampeyo was born into her mother's Tewa Corn clan. She had three older brothers, Tom Polacca, Kano, and Patuntupi, also known as Squash; Her brothers were born from about 1849 to 1858.
She was first photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1875 and was reputedly one of the most photographed ceramic artists in the Southwest.
About 1878 or 1881, Nampeyo married her second husband, Lesou, a member of the Cedarwood clan at Walpi. The their first daughter, Annie, was born in 1884; William Lesso, was born about 1893; Nellie was born in 1896; Wesley in 1899; and Fannie was born in 1900.
Artwork: Hopi people make ceramics painted with beautiful designs, and Nampeyo was eventually considered one of the finest Hopi potters. Nampeyo learned pottery making through the efforts of her paternal grandmother. In the 1870s, she made a steady income by selling her work at a local trading post operated by Thomas Keam. By 1881 she was already known for her works of "old Hopi" pottery of Walpi.
She became increasingly interested in ancient pottery form and design, recognizing them as superior to Hopi pottery produced at the time. Her second husband, Lesou (or Lesso) was reputedly employed by the archaeologist J. Walter Fewkes at the excavation of the prehistoric ruin of SikyÌÁtki on the First Mesa of the Hano Pueblo in the 1890s. Lesou helped Nampeyo find potsherds with ancient designs which they copied onto paper and were later integrated into Nampeyo's pottery. However, she began making copies of protohistoric pottery from the 15th through 17th centuries from ancient village sites, such as Sikytki, which was explored before Fewkes and Thomas Varker Keam. Nampeyo developed her own style based on the traditional designs, known as Hopi Revival pottery from old Hopi designs and Sikytki Revival pottery. Potters on the First Mesa of Walpi were hired by Keam to make reproductions of the works. Nampeyo was particularly skillful and her pottery became a commercial success and was distributed throughout the United States and in Europe.
Her work is distinguished by the shapes of the pottery and the designs. She often used the migration patter, which symbolized the migration of the Hopi people with feather and bird claw motifs. She made wide "flying saucer" shaped pottery and in later years tall jars, thought to be made to hold umbrellas.
When I first began to paint, I used to go to the ancient village and pick up pieces of pottery and copy the designs. That is how I learned to paint. But now, I just close my eyes and see designs and I paint them. Nampeyo, 1920's
Kate Cory, an artist and photographer who lived among the Hopi from 1905 to 1912 at Oraibi and Walpi, wrote that Nampeyo used sheep bones in the fire, which are believed to have made the fire hot or made the pottery whiter, and smoothed the fired pots with a plant with a red blossom. Both techniques are ancient Tewa pottery practices.
She and her husband traveled to Chicago in 1898 to exhibit her pottery. Between 1905 and 1907, she produced and sold pottery at the Grand Canyon lodge owned by the Fred Harvey Company. She exhibited in 1910 at the Chicago United States Land and Irrigation Exposition, which was very rare for a Native American artist at that time.
One of her famous patterns, the migration pattern, represented the migration of the Hopi people, such as the vase made in the 1930s and held at the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. Nampeyo's photograph was often used on travel brochures for the American southwest.
Nampeyo began to lose her sight due to trachoma about the turn of the 20th-century. From 1925 until her death she made pottery by touch and they were then painted by her husband, daughters or other family members.
She died in 1942 at the home of his son Wesley and her daughter-in-law, Cecilia.
She was a symbol of the Hopi people and was a leader in the revival of ancient pottery. She inspired dozens of family members over several generations to make pottery, including daughters Fannie Nampeyo and Annie Healing. A 2014 exhibit at the Museum of Northern Arizona presents the works of four generations of artists descended from Nampeyo.
‰ۢ Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona
‰ۢ Denver Art Museum, Colorado
‰ۢ Kansas City Museum, Missouri
‰ۢ Koshare Indian Museum, La Junta, Colorado
‰ۢ Millicent Rogers Museum, Taos, New Mexico
‰ۢ Museum of Northern Arizona
‰ۢ National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution
‰ۢ Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University
‰ۢ Union Station, Kansas City, Missouri
‰ۢ Museum of Indian Arts and Culture/Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
‰ۢ Fannie Nampeyo, daughter
‰ۢ Elva Nampeyo, granddaughter
‰ۢ Dan Namingha, great-great grandson
‰ۢ Dextra Nampeyo Quotskuyva, great-granddaughter
‰ۢ Nampeyo (crater), named to honor Nampeyo
1. Jump up ^ Dillingham, Rick. Fourteen Families in Pueblo Pottery. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8263-1499-6. pp. 14-15
2. Jump up ^ Various sources give either 1859 or 1860 as Nampeyo's birthdate.
3. Jump up ^ Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. p. xi, 7, 194.
4. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Diane Dittemore. "The Nampeyo Legacy: A Family of Hopi-Tewa Potters". Southwest Art. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
5. Jump up ^ Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. p. 20.
6. Jump up ^ Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. p. 81.
7. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f A Nampeyo Timeline, Arizona State Museum at the University of Arizona. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
8. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Lea S. McChesney. "Producing 'Generations in Clay'". Expedition Magazine. Penn Museum. March 1994. Retrieved April 7. 2014.
9. Jump up ^ Wade Edwin L., Lea S. McChesney and Thomas Keam. "Historic Hopi Ceramics: The Thomas V. Keam Collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology".
10. Jump up ^ Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. pp. 118‰ÛÒ120.
11. Jump up ^ Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. pp. 143, 160.
12. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Les Namingha. Nampeyo. National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
13. Jump up ^ Opitz, Glenn B., Mantle Fielding's Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors & Engravers, Apollo Books, Poughkeepsie, NY, 1988
14. Jump up ^ Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. p. 73-74.
15. ^ Jump up to: a b c Nampeyo. Koshare Indian Museum. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
16. ^ Jump up to: a b Barbara Kramer. Nampeyo and Her Pottery. University of Arizona Press; 1 February 2003. ISBN 978-0-8165-2321-4. p. 70.
17. Jump up ^ Appendix D: Ranking 'Nampeyo Pots'. Native American Art Collection. www.firstpeoplepots.com Retrieved April 9, 2013.
18. ^ Jump up to: a b Betsey Bruner. "A Family Connection: New MNA Exhibit Focuses on Family Legacy" Arizona Daily Sun. November 10, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
19. Jump up ^ A Nampeyo Showcase. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
20. Jump up ^ Nameyo: Excellence by Name. Denver Art Museum. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
21. ^ Jump up to: a b "Pueblo Pottery Exhibit Opens at McClung Museum September 7". Tennessee Today. University of Tennessee. August 29, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
22. Jump up ^ Museum Artists. Koshare Indian Museum. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
23. Jump up ^ "Taos museum acquires Nampeyo pottery vessel". The Taos News. June 20, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
24. Jump up ^ Untitled Hopi Jar, ca. 1900
‰ۢ Blair, Mary Ellen; Blair, Laurence R. (1999). The Legacy of a Master Potter: Nampeyo and Her Descendants. Tucson: Treasure Chest Books. ISBN 1-887896-06-6. OCLC 41666705.
‰ۢ Graves, Laura. Thomas Varker Keam, Indian Trader. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3013-X. (Source: Wikipedia)
A History of Pueblo Pottery:
Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features.
Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber.
Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un-decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares.
Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result.
Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)
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