Historic Native American San Ildefonso Poly Chrome Jar Ca. 1910, #1127

$ 6,559.00

Historic, Native American San Ildefonso Poly Chrome Jar Ca. 1910, 1127 

Description: A San Ildefonso Poly chrome Jar Ca. 1910 clay, paint Diameter: 9 inches

Condition: In overall good condition. No breaks, cracks or chips. Surface with moderate wear, including dings and abrasions, some affecting the painted design. Some soiling. No apparent restoration. 

Dimensions: 9.75" x 9".

Some background Information on the San Ildefonso Pueblo:

San Ildefonso Pueblo (Tewa: P'ohwhóge Owingeh [p’òhxʷógè ʔówîŋgè]) was established ca. 1300 C.E. and is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States, and a federally recognized tribe.[2] The Pueblo is self-governing and is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 524 as of the 2010 census,[3] reported by the State of New Mexico as 1,524 in 2012,[4] and there were 628 enrolled tribal members reported as of 2012 according to the Department of the Interior.[5] San Ildefonso Pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos, and the pueblo people are from the Tewa ethnic group of Native Americans, who speak the Tewa language. The Tewa name for San Ildefonso Pueblo means "where the water cuts through".[6][7]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the pueblo has a total area of 4.2 square miles (11 km2), of which 3.9 square miles (10 km2) is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) (5.54%) is water. San Ildefonso Pueblo is located at the foot of Black Mesa.

As of the census[9] of 2010, there were 524 people residing in San Ildefonso. The racial makeup was 62.2% Native American, 11.3% White, 21.2% from other races, and 5.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.9% of the population. There were 212 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them. As of 2010, the population was distributed with 26.3% under the age of 18, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older, females comprised 51.7%, and males comprised 48.3% of the population.

As of 2000, the median income for a household in San Ildefonso was $30,000, and the median income for a family was $30,972. Males had a median income of $19,792 versus $19,250 for females. The per capita income for the pueblo was $11,039. About 19.1% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.0% of those age 65 or over.

The Pueblo was founded when people migrated from the Mesa Verde complex in Southern Colorado, by way of Bandelier (elevation about 7000 feet), just south of present-day Los Alamos, New Mexico. People thrived at Bandelier due to the rainfall and the ease of constructing living structures from the surrounding soft volcanic rock. But after a prolonged drought, the people moved down into the valleys of the Rio Grande around 1300 C.E. (Pueblo IV Era). The Rio Grande and other arroyos provided the water for irrigation.

The Spanish conquistadors tried to subdue the native people and force Catholicism on the native people during the early 17th century, which led to the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The people withstood the Spaniards by climbing to the top of the Black Mesa. The siege ended with the surrender of the native people, but the Spanish gave the native people some freedom of religion and other self-governing rights.

The people of San Ildefonso continued to lead an agricultural based economy until the early 20th century when Maria Martinez and her husband Julian Martinez rediscovered how to make the Black-on Black pottery for which San Ildefonso Pueblo would soon become famous. From that time the Pueblo has become more tourist-oriented, with numerous tourist shops existing in the Pueblo. Because of close proximity to the state capital, Santa Fe, and the presence of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, many of those employed in the pueblo have government jobs.


San Ildefonso is governed by a civil government consisting of an executive branch (the governor) and a legislative branch (the tribal counsel).[10]

Notable Artists

Julian Martinez (1879–1943), pottery artist
Maria Martinez (1887–1980), pottery artist
Tonita Peña, watercolor artist
Awa Tsireh (also known as Alfonso Roybal), watercolor artist
Blue Corn (1920-1999), pottery artist
Victor Calabaza, photographer and poet. Also grandson of Blue Corn.

Other subjects of interest

Tsankawi cliff dwellings
Tsirege archaeological site
Black Mesa Research Facility
National Register of Historic Places listings in Santa Fe County, New Mexico


1. National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
2. "Southwest Region - Tribes Served". U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
3 http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/ipmtext.php?fl=35:3568010
4 "San Ildefonso Pueblo". New Mexico Tourism Department. Retrieved 16 April 20112. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
5. "BIA Southern Plains Regional Office". U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
6. a b "San Ildefonso Pueblo". Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
7. Burns, Patrick (2001). In the Shadow of Los Alamos: Selected Writings of Edith Warner. Albuquerque: U. New Mexico Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-8263-1974-2.
8. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
9. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
10. ^ "San Ildefonso Official Website". Retrieved 5 November 2014.
11. "Former Lt. Governor of the Pueblo de San Ildefonso Sentenced to 33 Months for Illegally Trafficking in Contraband Cigarrettes" (PDF). Press Release. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
12. "Pueblo de San Ildefonso Council of Principally v. Acting Southwest Regional Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs" (PDF). 54 IBIA 253 (02/13/2012). Interior Board of Indian Appeals. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
13. "Women Vote In Pueblo Election For First Time". KOAT-TV. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
14. http://www.santafenewmexican.com/localnews/San-Ildefonso-Pueblo-elects-women-for-1st-time
15. "San Ildefonso Pueblo Code". National Indian Law Library. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
16. http://www.sipec.us/index.html
17. "Feast Days". Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
18. "Dances & Events at New Mexico's Native Communities". New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
19. Wander, Robin (February 22, 2012). "Highlights from Stanford's Native American paintings collection are showcased in Memory and Markets: Pueblo Painting in the Early 20th Century". Stanford News. Stanford University, Cantor Arts Center. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
20. "Crescencio Martinez". Askart.com. Retrieved 2016-01-13.

Some background on Pueblo Pottery Making

“Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo’s local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated—most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features.

Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo’s pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. 

Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome—a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares.

Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result.

Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art.” (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)

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